About me

I'm a software developer and PhD graduate based in Munich, Germany. I am currently working in the privacy team at DuckDuckGo. I previously worked at Cliqz, developing innovative, user-empowering, and privacy-preserving software in the browser. Specifically, Cliqz' and Ghostery's anti-tracking system, which prevents online tracking of our users. I also participate in the W3C Privacy Community Group, an attempt to standardise tracking protection approaches across browsers.

I am interested in Decentralised and Federated tech, and am a keen self-hoster. I occasionally post things on the posts page.


Senior Privacy Engineer, DuckDuckGo

2021 onwards

Tech Lead, Cliqz

2015 to 2020

As part of the privacy team at Cliqz I am primarily responsible for Cliqz anti-tracking technology. Highlights include:

Technical Consultant, University College London

March 2015

Short contract to implement a tool for the analysis of AIS shipping data. The resulting tool was open sourced and is now being used for various tasks on the Shipping in Changing Climates project.

PhD, Imperial College London

2010 to 2015

My thesis, entitled “Multi-agent Based Simulation of Self-Governing Knowledge Commons”, investigates the application of self-organising governance, as observed in social systems my political economists, to socio-technical systems which manage of information and knowledge.


Arjaldo Karaj, Sam Macbeth, Rémi Berson, Josep M. Pujol, “WhoTracks.Me: Shedding light on the opaque world of online tracking,” Arxiv, pdf

Sam Macbeth, “Tracking the Trackers: Analysing the global tracking landscape with GhostRank,” Whitepaper, Cliqz/Ghostery, 2017. pdf

Sam Macbeth, “Tracking and Online Banking: A Survey”, Whitepaper, Cliqz, 2016. pdf

Zhonghao Yu, Sam Macbeth, Konark Modi, Josep M. Pujol, “Tracking the Trackers,” WWW, pp. 121-132, ACM, 2016. pdf

Sam Macbeth, “Multi-agent based simulation of self-governing knowledge commons,” PhD Thesis, 2015. pdf

Sam Macbeth and Jeremy Pitt, “Self-organising management of user-generated data and knowledge,” The Knowledge Engineering Review, 2014. pdf

Sam Macbeth, Didac Busquets, and Jeremy Pitt, “Principled operationalization of social systems using Presage2,” in Modelling and Simulation-Based Systems Engineering Handbook, pp. 43-66, CRC Press, 2014. link

Jeremy Pitt, Didac Busquets, and Sam Macbeth, “Distributive justice for self-organised common-pool resource management,” ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 14, 2014. link

Jeremy Pitt, Julia Schaumeier, Didac Busquets, and Sam Macbeth, “Self-organising common-pool resource allocation and canons of distributive justice,” Sixth International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organising Systems, pp. 120-128, 2012. pdf

Sam Macbeth, Jeremy Pitt, Julia Schaumeier, and Didac Busquets, “Animation of self-organising resource allocation using Presage2,” Sixth International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems (Demos), pp. 225-226, 2012. pdf

Jeremy Pitt, Brendan Neville, Sam Macbeth, and Hugo Carr, “Animation of Open Multi-agent Systems,” Proceedings of the 2011 Workshop on Agent-Directed Simulation, pp. 100-107, 2011. pdf